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Equine Health Resource

Antibiotics, Systemic Antibacterials & Antimicrobials

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Antibiotics (antibacterials) are drugs that kill bacteria or stop bacterial growth. Today, some antibiotics are produced directly from microbes, whereas some are synthesized in laboratories. Each has a profile of characteristics that make it more or less useful for a particular medical situation.

Systemic antibiotics are given by 3 main routes: orally, intravenously and intramuscular injection. After giving an antibiotic by one of these routes, we expect the drug to be absorbed over a given period of time, and to end up in different body tissues at different levels for an expected period of time.

Commonly used systemic antibiotics in equine veterinary practice include sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim, procaine penicillin, gentamycin, and ceftiofur. Less commonly used antibiotics include metronidazole, enrofloxacin, amikacin and chloramphenicol.

There are dozens of other antibiotics that might be used in very specific circumstances, for resistant bacteria or based on sensitivity results for known cultured bacterial pathogens in a specific case.

Vets know the most common bacterial infections of various organ systems and can make educated guesses as to the bacteria causing them. Generally, we may choose to use drugs with complementary spectra, meaning a combination that kills a wide variety of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. An example of this sort of combination is penicillin and gentamicin. In other cases, our choice of antibiotic is determined by culture and sensitivity.

Related DiagnosesThis Treatment Might Be Used for these Diagnoses

Infection of Extensor Tendon Sheath
Foal, Umbilical Infection or Abscess
Foal or Newborn, Septic or Infected Joint or Tendon Sheath
Wound or Laceration into Joint, Tendon Sheath or Bursa
Septic or Infected Flexor Tendon Sheath (in Adult)
Clostridial Myositis
Potomac Horse Fever, Neorickettsiosis
Bastard Strangles
Ulcerative Lymphangitis
Infected Joint, Septic Arthritis (in Adult)
Rectal Tear
Lyme Disease, Borreliosis
Purpura Hemorrhagica, PH
Cholangiohepatitis, Cholelithiasis
Internal Ear Infections
Pigeon Fever
Retained Placenta
Cystitis, Bladder Inflammation or Infection
Meningo-Encephalitis, Meningitis
Peritonitis
Dermatophilosis, Rain Rot
Brucellosis, Poll Evil, Fistulous Withers
Mouth or Tongue Infection, Actinomyces, Actinobacillus
Endometritis, Chronic
Sinus Infection, Sinusitis
Equine Proliferative Enteropathy, EPE
Foal or Newborn, Patent Urachus
Burn, Thermal or Fire
Guttural Pouch Empyema & Chondroids
Smoke Inhalation, Pneumonitis
Abdominal or Internal Abscess, Generally
Clostridial, Clostridium Colitis (in Adult)
Foal or Newborn, Septicemia
Strangles
Pneumonia, Pleuropneumonia & Pleuritis, Generally
Liver Abscess
Bladder & Urethral Stones
Neurotoxic Snakebite, Coral Snake, Cobra
Foal or Newborn, Failure of Passive Transfer
Kidney & Ureteral Stones
Sabulous Cystitis, Urolithiasis
Metritis, After Foaling
Choke, Esophageal Feed or Foreign Body Obstruction
Foal or Newborn, Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Bloody Diarrhea
Endotoxemia, Endotoxic Shock
Duodenitis-Proximal Jejunitis, DPJ
Abscessed or Infected Molar, Periapical Abscess
Proud Flesh
Salmonella Colitis (in Growing Foal or Adult)
Infarcted Intestine or Colon
Blister Beetle Toxicity
Temporohyoid Osteoarthropathy
Equine Canker
Shoe Boil, Olecranon Bursitis
External Ear Infections
Quittor, Infected Collateral Cartilage
Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections, Generally
Right Dorsal Colitis
Vesicular Stomatitis, VS
Cauda Equina Neuritis
Small Strongyle Infestation
Botulism
Foal or Newborn, Fractured or Broken Ribs
Fracture of Mandible or Lower Jaw
Fracture of Splint Bone
Fractured or Broken Ribs (in Adult)
Dust Cough, Irritated Airway from Dust
Dorsal Pharyngeal Lymphoid Hyperplasia, DPLH

Consider Potential Side Effects & Complications

Antibiotics must always be used cautiously. Horses rely on a massive population of bacteria that colonize the intestine. This population is critical for fermentation and digestion of roughage.

Antibiotics kill a percentage of that population, and can disrupt the balance of bacteria and function of the gastrointestinal tract. In some cases, this disruption can cause overgrowth of undesirable organisms and life threatening colitis. Horses can have allergic reactions to any drug, including antibiotics.

Consider Reasons Not To Use This Treatment

Must be used cautiously in horses that are susceptible to colitis for any reason.

Vets carefully choose antibiotics because the more antibiotic is put into the environment, the more chance for bacteria to develop resistance to the antibiotic. In that case, the drug loses its effectiveness.

Is It working? Timeframe for effect

This depends on the specific drug. Each drug class works in an entirely different way.

Generally, we expect to see evidence that infection is being controlled within hours to days, depending upon the specific nature of the infection.

Signs of success might include a reduced fever, less swelling, improved attitude and improvement in the specific parameters of the organ system we are treating. In the case of pneumonia, for example, we look for improved lung sounds, blood gases, and respiratory rate.

Questions To Ask My Vet

  • What is your rationale for my horse being kept on antibiotics?
  • Is there any risk to my horse being on antibiotics?
  • What is the risk of colitis with the particular antibiotic combination you have chosen?
Author: Doug Thal DVM Dipl. ABVP

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